# Elements of Statistics

In this page **Elements of Statistics **we give the information about Introduction to statistics and related all points and simple notes and solved example.

**Unit 1: Elements of Statistics**

Introduction to Statistics

1.1. Meaning of Statistics 1.2. Primary and Secondary data, Qualitative and quantitative data

Discrete and continuous data, frequency, cumulative frequency, frequency distribution

1.3 Representation of data by graphs: Histogram, frequency polygon, frequency curve, Ogive curve.

Representation of Statistical data by diagram: Bar diagram and Pie chart.

#### Elements of Statistics

**Unit 2: Descriptive Statistics**

2.1 Measures of central Tendency: Meaning of averages, Requirements

of good average.

Arithmetic mean (A.M.), Combined mean

Median

Quartiles

Mode

Relation between mean, median and mode. Merits and Demerits of Mean, Median and Mode

determination of Median and Mode by Graph.

2.2 Measures of Dispersion: Meaning of dispersion, Absolute and Relative measures of dispersion

Q.D

M.D

S.D

Variance and Combined variance

Coefficient of Variation (C.V.)

**Unit 3: Analysis of Bivariate data**

3.1 Correlation: Concept of Correlation, Types of correlation

Scattered diagram

Karl Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient (r)

Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient (R)

3.2 Regression: Concept of Regression, regression coefficients and

regression lines.

Properties of regression coefficients

**Unit 4: Probability**

4.1 Probability, addition law, multiplication law

4.2 Bayes’ theorem